The articulation of the atlas with the axis is of a complicated nature, comprising no fewer than four distinct joints. There is a pivot articulation between the odontoid process of the axis and the ring formed by the anterior arch and the tranverse ligament of the atlas (see Fig. 306); here there are two joints: one between the posterior surface of the anterior arch of the atlas and the front of the odontoid process; the other between the anterior surface of the ligament and the back of the process. Between the articular processes of the two bones there is on either side an arthrodial or gliding joint. The ligaments connecting these bones are: Two Articular Capsules. The Posterior Atlantoaxial.The Anterior Atlantoaxial. The Transverse.
The Patella | The Next Technology.
The patella (Figs. 255, 256) is a flat, triangular bone, situated on the front of the knee-joint. It is usually regarded as a sesamoid bone, developed in the tendon of the Quadriceps femoris, and resembles these bones (1) in being developed in a tendon; (2) in its center of ossification presenting a knotty or tuberculated outline; (3) in being composed mainly of dense cancellous tissue. It serves to protect the front of the joint, and increases the leverage of the Quadriceps femoris by making it act at a greater angle. It has an anterior and a posterior surface three borders, and an apex.
The Pelvis | The Next Technology.
The pelvis, so called from its resemblance to a basin, is a bony ring, interposed between the movable vertebræ of the vertebral column which it supports, and the lower limbs upon which it rests; it is stronger and more massively constructed than the wall of the cranial or thoracic cavities, and is composed of four bones: the two hip bones laterally and in front and the sacrum and coccyx behind.
The pelvis is divided by an oblique plane passing through the prominence of the sacrum, the arcuate and pectineal lines, and the upper margin of the symphysis pubis, into the greater and the lesser pelvis. The circumference of this plane is termed the linea terminalis or pelvic brim.
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The Phalanges of the Hand | The Next Technology.
The phalanges are fourteen in number, three for each finger, and two for the thumb. Each consists of a body and two extremities. The body tapers from above downward, is convex posteriorly, concave in front from above downward, flat from side to side; its sides are marked by rough which give attachment to the fibrous sheaths of the Flexor tendons. The proximal extremities of the bones of the first row present oval, concave articular surfaces, broader from side to side than from before backward. The proximal extremity of each of the bones of the second and third rows presents a double concavity separated by a median ridge. The distal extremities are smaller than the proximal, and each ends in two condyles separated by a shallow groove; the articular surface extends farther on the volar than on the dorsal surface, a condition best marked in the bones of the first row.
The inner surface of the skull-cap is concave and presents depressions for the convolutions of the cerebrum, together with numerous furrows for the lodgement of branches of the meningeal vessels. Along the middle line is a longitudinal groove, narrow in front, where it commences at the frontal crest, but broader behind; it lodges the superior sagittal sinus, and its margins afford attachment to the falx cerebri. On either side of it are several depressions for the arachnoid granulations, and at its back part, the openings of the parietal foramina when these are present. It is crossed, in front, by the coronal suture, and behind by the lambdoidal, while the sagittal lies in the medial plane between the parietal bones.
The skull as a whole may be viewed from different points, and the views so obtained are termed the normæ of the skull; thus, it may be examined from above (norma verticalis), from below (norma basalis), from the side (norma lateralis), from behind (norma occipitalis), or from the front (norma frontalis).
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The Exterior of the Skull | The Next Technology.
The metacarpus consists of five cylindrical bones which are numbered from the lateral side ( ossa metacarpalia I-V); each consists of a body and two extremities.
see more — The Metacarpus | The Next Technology.
The vomer is situated in the median plane, but its anterior portion is frequently bent to one or other side. It is thin, somewhat quadrilateral in shape, and forms the hinder and lower part of the nasal septum (Fig. 173); it has two surfaces and four borders. The surfaces (Fig. 174) are marked by small furrows for blood-vessels, and on each is the nasopalatine groove, which runs obliquely downward and forward, and lodges the nasopalatine nerve and vessels.
The Vomer | The Next Technology.
The parietal bones form, by their union, the sides and roof of the cranium. Each bone is irregularly quadrilateral in form, and has two surfaces, four borders, and four angles.
Surfaces.—The external surface (Fig. 132) is convex, smooth, and marked near the center by an eminence, the parietal eminence (tuber parietale), which indicates the point where ossification commenced. Crossing the middle of the bone in an arched direction are two curved lines, the superior and inferior temporal lines; the former gives attachment to the temporal fascia, and the latter indicates the upper limit of the muscular origin of the Temporalis.
The costal cartilages (Fig. 115) are bars of hyaline cartilage which serve to prolong the ribs forward and contribute very materially to the elasticity of the walls of the thorax. The first seven pairs are connected with the sternum; the next three are each articulated with the lower border of the cartilage of the preceding rib; the last two have pointed extremities, which end in the wall of the abdomen. Like the ribs, the costal cartilages vary in their length, breadth, and direction.
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